Emergence of the lake Naser stretched on 500 km and reaching districts of Sudan became more evident consequence of construction of a high-rise dam. Depth in separate places 180 metres are higher, with the area of a surface of 6 thousand square km, the lake is the largest reservoir in the world and reminds itself a closed sea more.
During a ten years’ drought when the water level has fallen in Nile to the lowest in 350 years of level, it has helped out Egypt for the hunger devastating Ethiopia and Sudan. When pouring rains in 1988 have forced Nile to overflow banks, the high-rise dam has helped out Aswan from flooding to which Khartoum has undergone. Because owing to dam destruction the most part of the population of Egypt would appear is washed away to the Mediterranean Sea, protection of a dam represents a priority. On surrounding hills radar installations and antiaircraft surface-to-air missile systems are placed. Here have not forgotten about how Israel during wars 1967 and 1973 and Gaddafi in 1984 threatened to subject a dam to bombings.
In spite of the fact that consequences of construction of a dam in social, cultural and nature protection spheres just should be estimated, its emergence has brought with itself the most part of the promised advantages. Egypt could transfer 700 thousand федданов (an area measure, the little smaller an acre) the processed earth from old lemon system of an irrigation on all-the-year-round that has led to doubling or even trebling of number of crops, also to make applicable for processing about one million федданов deserts. Not including that, emergence of a dam has caused tridtsatiprotsentny growth of industrial production. It makes the electric power for chemical and cement works of Aswan, Heluansky iron and steel works and the oil refining companies of Suez. Fishing and service of tourists on the lake Naser have turned into profitable branches. And Toshk’s new pump station and the channel of Sheikh Zaid, as Toshk’s project will be carried out (look insert at the village. 555), should re-embody to lush lands new sites of the desert.
The main affected party are the Nubians which homeland has appeared is flooded with the lake. Other aspects of influence of a dam on environment for the present only are studied. Evaporations of the lake conduct to emergence of a fog, clouds and even loss of a precipitation over earlier droughty areas, and underground waters near Sahara reach far Atzhir. In view of that the dam detains silt which is no time returned fertility to the Egyptian fields, owners of the last rely now on fertilizers. To warn the zasoleny lands, caused by an all-the-year-round irrigation, it is possible only in the way of creation of the branched-out drainage system. But it turns local lands into a source of distribution of mosquitoes and bilgartsiya. Ancient monuments also are exposed to influence of the salt which has seemed because of lifting of a water level and growth of humidity. Some even consider that finally dam works Egypt has become is more sensitive to earthquakes. Eventually, the delta of Nile without the oozy deposits which were quite often filling it earlier, intensively collapses the Mediterranean Sea along all coast.
According to available calculations, the lake in 500 years will appear is overflowed with silt. Which considers that Nubia can by then, as during the prehistoric period, again to appear is covered with magnificent vegetation. Others fear the international conflicts because of аква resources in the most near future. When Ethiopia not so has long since started possibility research stroitels-1" ^а dams on the river Abbay (Blue Neil source), the Egyptian government has warned that though what decrease in amount of the Nile water arriving to Egypt (under the contract it is equal 59 billions cubic metres of times a year), will be considered by it as threat of state safety, and in coming waters it will be necessary even more.