Halls of the Old kingdom. Sculptural art in Egypt in the Old Kingdom

Halls of the Old kingdom. Sculptural art in Egypt in the Old Kingdom

Slices of a known Sphinx in Egypt in a museum
The southwest corner of the ground floor is devoted to the Old kingdom (about 2700-2181) when Pharaohs of III and VI dynasties ruled Egypt from Memphis and built the pyramids. Along the central wing of halls No. 46-47 there are funeral statues of printsipny grandees and their servants (custom alive to bury servants together with the sir has interrupted with the termination of the 2nd dynasty). The relief from Userkaf’s temple (halls No. 47, from North side from an entrance in a hall No. 48) is an example for the first known to us images of pictures of the nature in a decor of imperial funeral constructions. Figures of a motley halcyon, a purple kamyshnitsa and a sacred ibis are perfectly distinguishable. Along a northern wall of a hall No. 47 6 wood panels from Hesir’s tomb with images of this senior copyist of Pharaohs of the III dynasty which to a descent is earliest of dentists known to us are exposed. In a hall No. 47 are exposed also ушебти – figurines of workers which are represented cooking food (No. 52 and 53). Here are occurring of the temple in Giza about which there is the Central bank of Egypt, Menkaur’s three slate sculptural triads from his dolinny temple in Giza: the Pharaoh is represented near Hatkhor and the goddess of Afroditopolsky Nome. Pair of alabaster plates with the image of lions at the 4th column on North side, maybe, was used for sacrifices or libations at the end of an era of the II dynasty. The trip to Egypt costs to take pleasure in more impressing exhibits of a hall No. 46 – figurines of the keeper of imperial clothes of dwarf Hnumkhotep, the person with the deformed head and the hunched back, suffering, apparently, in an illness Potta (No. 54 and 65). Slices of a small beard which was carried by the Sphinx in Egypt, are in the end of a lobby (halls No. 51), at the left under a ladder (No. 6031). The next splinter of metre length is in the British museum in London. The small beard, probably, had length of 5 metres before it has been broken into pieces by armies мамлюков and Napoleon’s fighters during training firing practice.
Ladies of Egypt in a sculpture
Not including that, in a hall No. 51 there is a sculptural head of the Pharaoh of the V dynasty of Userkaf (No. 6051), representing earliest of statues known at present in the size there is more than natural. At an entrance in a No. hall 41 reliefs from a tomb of an era of the V dynasty in Meyduma (No. 25) represent hunting in the desert and different types of agricultural works. On other plate (No. 59) from a tomb of the V dynasty in Sakkara we see weighing, обмолот and grain sorting, work of the glass blower and the carver of statues. The ladies of Egypt represented on these reliefs are dressed in long dresses, men – in loincloths, and times in general without clothes (it is possible to see, customs of Egypt then included a trimming ceremony). The hall No. 42 can повытрепываться Hefren’s charming statue, his head is topped with the image of Chorus (No. 37). The statue brought from the dolinny temple of Hefren in Giza, is cut out from a dark diorite, and white marble impregnations successfully emphasise muscles of feet and the compressed fist of the Pharaoh. The wood statue of Kaaper (No. 40) standing at the left – a figure of the stout person with a thoughtful look which the Arabs working at excavation in Sakkara, called "sheikh al-balad" because he resembled their rural head is more impressing. One of 2 not so long since restored wood statues on the right (No. 123 and No. 124), maybe, represents the same person. Let’s note also remarkable statue of the copyist (No. 43) who has spread out a roll of the papyrus on a lap. On walls of a hall No. 31 there are the reliefs executed on sandstone found in Vadi-Maraga on Sinai, about starenky places of production of turquoise. As features of religion of old Egypt, Ranofer’s pair calcareous statues symbolise his double status of the Supreme priest of god the Bird and god Sokar in Memphis. Statues look actually similar, differing only wigs and loincloths, both of them have been made in imperial workshops, maybe, by the same architect.
Art of Egypt in blossoming of the Old kingdom
In a hall No. 32 the statues of tsarevitch Rakhotep executed full-scale and his spouse Nefert from them мастабы in Meyduma (the IV dynasty) dominate. Skin of the tsarevitch is painted in brick-red colour, his spouses – cream and yellow; such distinction is widespread in the Egyptian art. Nefert it is dressed in a wig and a diadem, her shoulders are wrapped up by a transparent cover. On the tsarevitch the ordinary loincloth which has been wrapped up round a waist. Pay attention to the live image which was at the left of dwarf Seneba and his family (No. 39). The face of the keeper of imperial clothes which is embraced by the spouse, looks the pacified; their naked children bring fingers to lips. In the 2nd niche on the left side the visible and live ideal wall the painting, known under the title «Meydumsky geese» (the III—IV dynasty) hangs. Art of Egypt in blossoming of the Old kingdom is presented only by a statue of Ti at the left (No. 49), the period of a decline of this era is even richer with monuments: directly near an entrance there are most ancient of steel sculptures (about 2300) known to us – Pepi’s I statue and his descendant (during guidebook writing these exhibits have been taken away for restoration). The furniture of the queen exposed in a hall No. 37 Hetepkheres has been restored from a heap of gold and fragments of the decayed tree. Hetepkheres – spouse Snofra and Cheops mother – has been buried about a pyramid of Egypt of own descendant in Giza; together with it in a tomb a stretcher, gold vessels and a bed with a canopy have arranged. Not including that, in the same hall, in a separate show-window there is Cheops tiny figurine, the only thing the portrait image of the Pharaoh known to us – the builder of the Great pyramid.

Know better history of the Old Kingdom the ordered rounds to Egypt from Dnepropetrovsk can.